Monatomic Colloidal Silver & Gold Scientific Facts Not A Mythby AS on 01/16/11
We were not surprised that many have tried to categorize and equate colloidal silver atoms with Ionic Silver.
These are worlds apart because it is assumed that ionic silver is combined with chloride, which is not used with the GoldenGevity Monatomic Colloidal Silver Atom Process.
Even though documentation has been provided the, the critics of colloidal silver atoms, choose to ignore the facts, due to the fact that they are funded by a competing line of products.
Since they refuse to acknowledge scientific findings concerning monatomic particles we will further explain why they exist, please note to the average reader most of this will not make sense, however at the bottom of this article you will find our conclusions:
How Particles Acquire Mass
By Mary and Ian Butterworth, Imperial College London, and Doris and Vigdor Teplitz, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, USA.
The Higgs boson is a hypothesised particle which, if it exists, would give the mechanism by which particles acquire mass.
Matter is made of molecules; molecules of atoms; atoms of a cloud of electrons about one-hundred-millionth of a centimetre and a nucleus about one-hundred-thousandth the size of the electron cloud. The nucleus is made of protons and neutrons. Each proton (or neutron) has about two thousand times the mass of an electron. We know a good deal about why the nucleus is so small. We do not know, however, how the particles get their masses. Why are the masses what they are? Why are the ratios of masses what they are? We can't be said to understand the constituents of matter if we don't have a satisfactory answer to this question.
Peter Higgs has a model in which particle masses arise in a beautiful, but complex, progression. He starts with a particle that has only mass, and no other characteristics, such as charge, that distinguish particles from empty space. We can call his particle H. H interacts with other particles; for example if H is near an electron, there is a force between the two. H is of a class of particles called "bosons". We first attempt a more precise, but non-mathematical statement of the point of the model; then we give explanatory pictures.
In the mathematics of quantum mechanics describing creation and annihilation of elementary particles, as observed at accelerators, particles at particular points arise from "fields" spread over space and time. Higgs found that parameters in the equations for the field associated with the particle H can be chosen in such a way that the lowest energy state of that field (empty space) is one with the field not zero. It is surprising that the field is not zero in empty space, but the result, not an obvious one, is: all particles that can interact with H gain mass from the interaction.
Thus mathematics links the existence of H to a contribution to the mass of all particles with which H interacts. A picture that corresponds to the mathematics is of the lowest energy state, "empty" space, having a crown of H particles with no energy of their own. Other particles get their masses by interacting with this collection of zero-energy H particles. The mass (or inertia or resistance to change in motion) of a particle comes from its being "grabbed at" by Higgs particles when we try and move it.
If particles no get their masses from interacting with the empty space Higgs field, then the Higgs particle must exist; but we can't be certain without finding the Higgs. We have other hints about the Higgs; for example, if it exists, it plays a role in "unifying" different forces. However, we believe that nature could contrive to get the results that would flow from the Higgs in other ways. In fact, proving the Higgs particle does not exist would be scientifically every bit as valuable as proving it does.
These questions, the mechanisms by which particles get their masses, and the relationship amongs different forces of nature, are major ones and so basic to having an understanding of the constituents of matter and the forces among them, that it is hard to see how we can make significant progress in our understanding of the stuff of which the earth is made without answering them. End of Article.
Researchers at the CERN http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/lhc/lhc-en.html
Have discovered monatomic and subatomic particles.
In particle physics, a kaon (pronounced /?ke?.?n/, also called a K-meson and denoted K[nb 1]) is any one of a group of four mesons distinguished by the fact that they carry a quantum number called strangeness. In the quark model they are understood to contain a strange quark (or antiquark), paired with an up or down antiquark (or quark).
Kaons have proved to be a copious source of information on the nature of fundamental interactions since their discovery in 1947. They were essential in establishing the foundations of the Standard Model of particle physics, such as the quark model of hadrons and the theory of quark mixing (the latter was acknowledged by a Nobel Prize in Physics in 2008). Kaons played a distinguished role in our understanding of fundamental conservation laws: the discovery of CP violation (a phenomenon generating the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe), which was acknowledged by a Nobel prize in 1980, was made in the kaon system.
The four kaons are :
1.The negatively charged K?(containing a strange quark and an up antiquark) has mass 493.667±0.013 MeV and mean lifetime 1.2384±0.0024×10?8s.
2.Its antiparticle, the positively charged K+ (containing an up quark and a strange antiquark) must (by CPT invariance) have mass and lifetime equal to that of K?. The mass difference is 0.032±0.090 MeV, consistent with zero. The difference in lifetime is 0.11±0.09×10?8s.
3.The K0(containing a down quark and a strange antiquark) has mass 497.648±0.022 MeV. It has mean squared charge radius of ?0.076±0.01 fm2.
4.Its antiparticle K0(containing a strange quark and a down antiquark) has the same mass.
It is clear from the quark model assignments that the kaons form two doublets of isospin; that is, they belong to the fundamental representation of SU(2) called the 2. One doublet of strangeness +1 contains the K+ and the K0. The antiparticles form the other doublet (of strangeness -1).
The decay of a kaon (K+) into three pions (2 ?+, 1 ??) is a process that involves both weak and strong interactions.
Weak interactions : The strange antiquark (s) of the kaon transmutes into an up antiquark (u) by the emission of a W+ boson; the W+ boson subsequently decays into a down antiquark (d) and an up quark (u).
Strong interactions : An up quark (u) emits a gluon (g) which decays into a down quark (d) and a down antiquark (d).
The discovery of hadrons with the internal quantum number "strangeness" marks the beginning of a most exciting epoch in particle physics that even now, fifty years later, has not yet found its conclusion ... by and large experiments have driven the development, and that major discoveries came unexpectedly or even against expectations expressed by theorists. — I.I. Bigi and A.I. Sanda, CP violation, (ISBN 0-521-44349-0)
In 1947, G. D. Rochester and Clifford Charles Butler of the University of Manchester published two cloud chamber photographs of cosmic ray-induced events, one showing what appeared to be a neutral particle decaying into two charged pions, and one which appeared to be a charged particle decaying into a charged pion and something neutral. The estimated mass of the new particles was very rough, about half a proton's mass. More examples of these "V-particles" were slow in coming.
The first breakthrough was obtained at Caltech, where a cloud chamber was taken up Mount Wilson, for greater cosmic ray exposure. In 1950, 30 charged and 4 neutral V-particles were reported. Inspired by this, numerous mountaintop observations were made over the next several years, and by 1953, the following terminology was adopted: "L-meson" meant muon or pion. "K-meson" meant a particle intermediate in mass between the pion and nucleon. "Hyperon" meant any particle heavier than a nucleon.
The decays were extremely slow; typical lifetimes are of the order of 10?10 seconds. However, production in pion-proton reactions proceeds much faster, with a time scale of 10?23s. The problem of this mismatch was solved by Abraham Pais who postulated the new quantum number called strangeness which is conserved in strong interactions but violated by the weak interactions. Strange particles appear copiously due to "associated production" of a strange and an antistrange particle together. It was soon shown that this could not be a multiplicative quantum number, because that would allow reactions which were never seen in the new synchrotrons which were commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1953 and in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1955.
What is a Pion:
In particle physics, a pion (short for pi meson, denoted with ?) is any of three subatomic particles: ?0, ?+ , and ??. Pions are the lightest mesons and they play an important role in explaining the low-energy properties of the strong nuclear force.
Pions are bosons with zero spin, and they are composed of first-generation quarks. In the quark model, an "up quark" and an anti-"down quark" make up a ?+, whereas a "down quark" and an anti-"up quark" make up the ??, and these are the antiparticles of one another. The uncharged pions are combinations of an "up quark" with an anti-"up quark" or a "down quark" with an anti-"down quark", have identical quantum numbers, and hence they are only found in superpositions.
The lowest-energy superposition of these is the ?0, which is its own antiparticle. Together, the pions form a triplet of isospin. Each pion has isospin (I = 1) and third-component isospin equal to its charge (Iz = +1, 0 or ?1).
Charged pion decays Feynman diagram of the dominating leptonic pion decay.The ?± mesons have a mass of 139.6 MeV/c2 and a mean lifetime of 2.6×10?8s. They decay due to the weak interaction. The primary decay mode of a pion, with probability 0.999877, is a purely leptonic decay into a muon and a muon neutrino:
The second most common decay mode of a pion, with probability 0.000123, is also a leptonic decay into an electron and the corresponding electron neutrino. This mode was discovered at CERN in 1958:
The suppression of the electronic mode, with respect to the muonic one, is given approximately (to within radiative corrections) by the ratio of the half-widths of the pion–electron and the pion–muon decay reactions:
Van der Waals Force (True Definition)
In physical chemistry, the van der Waals force (or van der Waals interaction), named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, is the sum of the attractive or repulsive forces between molecules (or between parts of the same molecule) other than those due to covalent bonds or to the electrostatic interaction of ions with one another or with neutral molecules. The term includes:
• force between two permanent dipoles (Keesom force)
• force between a permanent dipole and a corresponding induced dipole (Debye force)
• force between two instantaneously induced dipoles (London dispersion force)
It is also sometimes used loosely as a synonym for the totality of intermolecular forces. Van der Waals forces are relatively weak compared to normal chemical bonds, but play a fundamental role in fields as diverse as supramolecular chemistry, structural biology, polymer science, nanotechnology, surface science, and condensed matter physics. Van der Waals forces define the chemical character of many organic compounds. They also define the solubility of organic substances in polar and non-polar media. In low molecular weight alcohols, the properties of the polar hydroxyl group dominate the weak intermolecular forces of van der Waals. In higher molecular weight alcohols, the properties of the nonpolar hydrocarbon chain(s) dominate and define the solubility. Van der Waals-London forces grow with the length of the nonpolar part of the substance.
NOTE: The science of molecules is called molecular chemistry or molecular physics, depending on the focus. Molecular chemistry deals with the laws governing the interaction between molecules that results in the formation and breakage of chemical bonds, while molecular physics deals with the laws governing their structure and properties. In practice, however, this distinction is vague. In molecular sciences, a molecule consists of a stable system (bound state) comprising two or more atoms. Polyatomic ions may sometimes be usefully thought of as electrically charged molecules. The term unstable molecule is used for very reactive species, i.e., short-lived assemblies (resonances) of electrons and nuclei, such as radicals, molecular ions, Rydberg molecules, transition states, van der Waals complexes, or systems of colliding atoms as in Bose-Einstein condensate.
Most molecules are far too small to be seen with the naked eye, but there are exceptions. DNA, a macromolecule, can reach macroscopic sizes, as can molecules of many polymers. The smallest molecule is the diatomic hydrogen (H2), with a length of 0.74 Å. Molecules commonly used as building blocks for organic synthesis have a dimension of a few Å to several dozen Å. Single molecules cannot usually be observed by light (as noted above), but small molecules and even the outlines of individual atoms may be traced in some circumstances by use of an atomic force microscope. Some of the largest molecules are macromolecules or supermolecules. End of Article
Flour suspended in water appears to be blue because blue light is scattered by the flour particles more strongly than red light The Tyndall effect, also known as Tyndall scattering, is light scattering by particles in a colloid or particles in a fine suspension. It is named after the 19th century physicist John Tyndall. It is similar to Rayleigh scattering, in that the intensity of the scattered light depends on the fourth power of the frequency, so blue light is scattered more strongly than red light. An example in everyday life is the blue colour sometimes seen in the smoke emitted by motorcycles, particularly two stroke machines where the burnt engine oil provides the particles.
Under the Tyndall effect, the longer-wavelength light is more transmitted while the shorter-wavelength light is more reflected via scattering. An analogy to this wavelength dependency is that longwave electromagnetic waves such as radio waves are able to pass through the walls of buildings, while shortwave electromagnetic waves such as light waves are stopped and reflected by the walls. The Tyndall effect is seen when light-scattering particulate-matter is dispersed in an otherwise light-transmitting medium, when the cross-section of an individual particulate is the range of roughly between 40 and 900 nanometers, i.e. somewhat below or near the wavelength of visible light (400-750 nanometers).
The Tyndall effect is commercially exploited to determine the size and density of particles in aerosols and other colloidal matter; see ultramicroscope and turbidimeter. End
What is not mentioned:
What is not mentioned by most producers of Chemical Colloids is the fact that the Tyndall Effect measures particles, it does NOT distinguish if it is a Chemical Particle or a solid element. In our opinion the Tyndall Effect proves chemical composition.
IF Van der Waals Force, is the only way to determine if matter exists, then we are all in trouble and we should not exist either LOL!
Van de Waals Force does not apply to monatomic, or subatomic particles.
The fact that scientist have found subatomic particles proves the paid skeptics wrong.
Monatomic and Subatomic particles were demonstrated by scientific formulas and equations, many more to be physically discovered, and only by the HADRON Collider.
The Tyndall Effect is not accurate proof that there are no chemicals in a colloidal silver solution since the nanoparticles need the chemicals to help them float.
So, when you read their simplistic reasoning accusing the Monatomic Colloidal Silver to be A Myth, understand that they are trying to defend their market share, and have financial motives behind their subtle bashing.
Do you want to read more documented supporting information?